How to Make Cocoa
The chocolate liquor, destined to become a cup of cocoa, is
pumped into giant hydraulic presses weighing up to 25 tons,
where pressure is applied to remove the desired cocoa butter.
The fat drains away through metallic screens as a yellow liquid.
It is then collected for use in chocolate manufacturing.
Cocoa butter has such importance for the chocolate industry
that it deserves more than a passing mention. It is unique among
vegetable fats because it is a solid at normal room temperature
and melts at 89 to 93 degrees Fahrenheit, which is just below
Its success in resisting oxidation and rancidity makes it very
practical. Under normal storage conditions, cocoa butter can
be kept for years without spoiling.
The pressed cake that is left after the removal of cocoa butter
can be cooled, pulverized and sifted into cocoa powder. Cocoa
that is packaged for sale to grocery stores or put into bulk
for use as a flavor by dairies, bakeries, and confectionery
manufacturers, may have 10 percent or more cocoa butter content.
"Breakfast cocoa," a less common type, must contain at least
22 percent cocoa butter.
In the so-called "Dutch" process, the manufacturer treats the
cocoa with an alkali to develop a slightly different flavor
and give the cocoa a darker appearance characteristic of the
Dutch type. The alkali acts as a processing agent rather than
as a flavor ingredient.
How to Make Eating Chocolate While cocoa is
made by removing some of the cocoa butter, eating chocolate
is made by adding it. This holds true of all eating chocolate,
whether it is dark, bittersweet, or milk chocolate. Besides
enhancing the flavor, the added cocoa butter serves to make
the chocolate more fluid.
One example of eating chocolate is sweet chocolate, a combination
of unsweetened chocolate, sugar, cocoa butter and perhaps a
little vanilla. Making it entails melting and combining the
ingredients in a large mixing machine until the mass has the
consistency of dough.
Milk chocolate, the most common form of eating chocolate, goes
through essentially the same mixing process-except that it involves
using less unsweetened chocolate and adding milk.
Whatever ingredients are used, the mixture then travels through
a series of heavy rollers set one atop the other. Under the
grinding that takes place here, the mixture is refined to a
smooth paste ready for "conching."